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SQLite 语法

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发表于 2015-6-1 21:18:34 | 只看该作者 回帖奖励 |倒序浏览 |阅读模式
转自:http://www.w3cschool.cc/sqlite/sqlite-syntax.html
SQLite 是遵循一套独特的称为语法的规则和准则。本教程列出了所有基本的 SQLite 语法,向您提供了一个 SQLite 快速入门。


大小写敏感性
有个重要的点值得注意,SQLite 是不区分大小写的,但也有一些命令是大小写敏感的,比如 GLOB 和 glob 在 SQLite 的语句中有不同的含义。


注释
SQLite 注释是附加的注释,可以在 SQLite 代码中添加注释以增加其可读性,他们可以出现在任何空白处,包括在表达式内和其他 SQL 语句的中间,但它们不能嵌套。


SQL 注释以两个连续的 "-" 字符(ASCII 0x2d)开始,并扩展至下一个换行符(ASCII 0x0a)或直到输入结束,以先到者为准。


您也可以使用 C 风格的注释,以 "/*" 开始,并扩展至下一个 "*/" 字符对或直到输入结束,以先到者为准。SQLite的注释可以跨越多行。


sqlite>.help -- This is a single line comment
SQLite 语句
所有的 SQLite 语句可以以任何关键字开始,如 SELECT、INSERT、UPDATE、DELETE、ALTER、DROP 等,所有的语句以分号(;)结束。


SQLite ANALYZE 语句:
ANALYZE;
or
ANALYZE database_name;
or
ANALYZE database_name.table_name;
SQLite AND/OR 子句:
SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM? ?table_name
WHERE??CONDITION-1 {AND|OR} CONDITION-2;
SQLite ALTER TABLE 语句:
ALTER TABLE table_name ADD COLUMN column_def...;
SQLite ALTER TABLE 语句(Rename):
ALTER TABLE table_name RENAME TO new_table_name;
SQLite ATTACH DATABASE 语句:
ATTACH DATABASE 'DatabaseName' As 'Alias-Name';
SQLite BEGIN TRANSACTION 语句:
BEGIN;
or
BEGIN EXCLUSIVE TRANSACTION;
SQLite BETWEEN 子句:
SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM? ?table_name
WHERE??column_name BETWEEN val-1 AND val-2;
SQLite COMMIT 语句:
COMMIT;
SQLite CREATE INDEX 语句:
CREATE INDEX index_name
ON table_name ( column_name COLLATE NOCASE );
SQLite CREATE UNIQUE INDEX 语句:
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_name
ON table_name ( column1, column2,...columnN);
SQLite CREATE TABLE 语句:
CREATE TABLE table_name(
? ?column1 datatype,
? ?column2 datatype,
? ?column3 datatype,
? ?.....
? ?columnN datatype,
? ?PRIMARY KEY( one or more columns )
);
SQLite CREATE TRIGGER 语句:
CREATE TRIGGER database_name.trigger_name
BEFORE INSERT ON table_name FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
? ?stmt1;
? ?stmt2;
? ?....
END;
SQLite CREATE VIEW 语句:
CREATE VIEW database_name.view_name??AS
SELECT statement....;
SQLite CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE 语句:
CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE database_name.table_name USING weblog( access.log );
or
CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE database_name.table_name USING fts3( );
SQLite COMMIT TRANSACTION 语句:
COMMIT;
SQLite COUNT 子句:
SELECT COUNT(column_name)
FROM? ?table_name
WHERE??CONDITION;
SQLite DELETE 语句:
DELETE FROM table_name
WHERE??{CONDITION};
SQLite DETACH DATABASE 语句:
DETACH DATABASE 'Alias-Name';
SQLite DISTINCT 子句:
SELECT DISTINCT column1, column2....columnN
FROM? ?table_name;
SQLite DROP INDEX 语句:
DROP INDEX database_name.index_name;
SQLite DROP TABLE 语句:
DROP TABLE database_name.table_name;
SQLite DROP VIEW 语句:
DROP INDEX database_name.view_name;
SQLite DROP TRIGGER 语句:
DROP INDEX database_name.trigger_name;
SQLite EXISTS 子句:
SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM? ?table_name
WHERE??column_name EXISTS (SELECT * FROM? ?table_name );
SQLite EXPLAIN 语句:
EXPLAIN INSERT statement...;
or
EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT statement...;
SQLite GLOB 子句:
SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM? ?table_name
WHERE??column_name GLOB { PATTERN };
SQLite GROUP BY 子句:
SELECT SUM(column_name)
FROM? ?table_name
WHERE??CONDITION
GROUP BY column_name;
SQLite HAVING 子句:
SELECT SUM(column_name)
FROM? ?table_name
WHERE??CONDITION
GROUP BY column_name
HAVING (arithematic function condition);
SQLite INSERT INTO 语句:
INSERT INTO table_name( column1, column2....columnN)
VALUES ( value1, value2....valueN);
SQLite IN 子句:
SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM? ?table_name
WHERE??column_name IN (val-1, val-2,...val-N);
SQLite Like 子句:
SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM? ?table_name
WHERE??column_name LIKE { PATTERN };
SQLite NOT IN 子句:
SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM? ?table_name
WHERE??column_name NOT IN (val-1, val-2,...val-N);
SQLite ORDER BY 子句:
SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM? ?table_name
WHERE??CONDITION
ORDER BY column_name {ASC|DESC};
SQLite PRAGMA 语句:
PRAGMA pragma_name;


For example:


PRAGMA page_size;
PRAGMA cache_size = 1024;
PRAGMA table_info(table_name);
SQLite RELEASE SAVEPOINT 语句:
RELEASE savepoint_name;
SQLite REINDEX 语句:
REINDEX collation_name;
REINDEX database_name.index_name;
REINDEX database_name.table_name;
SQLite ROLLBACK 语句:
ROLLBACK;
or
ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT savepoint_name;
SQLite SAVEPOINT 语句:
SAVEPOINT savepoint_name;
SQLite SELECT 语句:
SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM? ?table_name;
SQLite UPDATE 语句:
UPDATE table_name
SET column1 = value1, column2 = value2....columnN=valueN
[ WHERE??CONDITION ];
SQLite VACUUM 语句:
VACUUM;
SQLite WHERE 子句:
SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM? ?table_name
WHERE??CONDITION;
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